Line Follower Robot Without Microcontroller

Line follower Robot is the  first Automatic Robot made by every engineer working on Robotics. as these days every robot functions with the help of Microcontroller and hence the circuit too complex to understand for start-up. due to this reason. i am presenting Line follower Robot with simple concept without Microcontroller. this robot is mobile automation robot which follow white/black line on black/white surface. using this concept you can make automatic loading goods system,

Here two sensor pairs LED-LDR are used. According to physics, if light falls on a white surface, it gets reflected but when it falls on black surface it will completely get absorbed by the surface. The LDR (Light Dependent Resistance) acts as a sensor which senses the reflected light i.e. “transmitted light by LED”.If the sensor is placed on a white surface, the D.C. motor is turned on and in black surface it will be turned off and robot
will move accordingly.

It is a simple circuit with a LM358 op-amp and is able to operate from 9v to 12V. The LM358 contains two op amps which are wired as comparators. Thus when the voltage at the non-inverting terminal (+) is higher than inverting terminal (-) its output will be high and when the voltage at the inverting terminal (-) is higher than non-inverting terminal (+) the output will be low. Outputs of the op-amp comparators are given to transistors which are wired as switch to drive the motors. Diodes D3 and D4 are provided to cancel the negative voltages produced due to the back emf of the motor.

The sensitivity of the LDR can be adjusted by using the 10K pot. For more accuracy, cover the sensor-LED pairs in a black wrapper through sides in such a way that only the reflected light falls on the LDR. The Line Follower can trace path drawn with black ink on a white chart and the width of the black track should be a litte less than the width between sensors.

Components Required

  •  LM358(2)
  •  D.C. MOTOR ( 2)
  • Variable 10K (2)
  •  Resistance 1K(4)
  • Wheel (4)
  •  Diode 4007
  •  LED ( 2)
  • LDR (2)
  • BC 547 ( 2)
  • Battery line-follower-robot-circuit-without-using-microcontroller-1005x1024

 

Can be Purchased from Here graphics-click-here-688974

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